Purpose: The purpose of the study is bifold. First, it investigates the magnitude of youth inclusion (Labour Force Participation and Workforce Participation) and seclusion (Unemployment and Not in Employment, Education and Training) from the Indian labour market based on their educational attainment. Secondly, the study explores the relative contribution of stream-wise (general/technical/vocational) educational attainment along with demographic characteristics (age, gender, place of residence) of the youth in defining their status (inclusion and exclusion) in the Indian labour market.
Design/methodology/approach: The study applies the logistic regression on the National Sample Survey data on (un)employment for the years 2004/05 and 2001/12 and the Periodic Labour Force Survey data for 2017/18. The surveys are the largest, and the latest government-owned dataset available in the Indian context to analyze the key indicators of the labour market.
Findings: The study finds that the background characteristics of 25-29 years, having a technical diploma above graduation in medicine and vocationally trained from nonformal/hereditary sources contribute highest towards the inclusion of youth in the Indian labour market. While the background characteristics, female, urban, general education—especially graduation and post-graduation & above and no vocational training are identified as the risk factors and contribute towards the exclusion of female youth from the Indian labour market.
Social Implications: Contributes to the policy front and will be beneficial in tackling the issue of educated youth inclusion and/or exclusion from the labour market in India.
Originality/value: The findings of this study add substantial value to the limited youth labour market studies in India, where despite a significant representation in population and higher education, youth remains the least addressed section of the labour market. It also provides an insight into the underlying factors for educated youth to remain secluded from the ‘world of work’.
Keywords- Inclusion, Exclusion, Higher education, Labour market, Youth